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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

Loyal employees of this auto services company are rewarded on their 10th anniversary -- and every five years after --with a weekend getaway at a resort in Boca Raton, Fla. (The company is headquartered just 15 minutes away.)

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世界知识产权组织总干事弗朗西斯.高锐在记者会上表示“中国的表现必须予以强调,他们的排名排到了第25位,与那些多年来一直位居全球创新指数前列的高收入国家比肩而立。”
迷你剧集/电影类最佳男演员:考特尼?B?万斯(Courtney B Vance),《美国罪案故事:公诉辛普森》(The People v. O. J. Simpson: American Crime Story)
迄今为止,Bigcommerce同名技术的吸引力就在于其简单性,以及与商户同步成长的能力。史蒂夫o凯斯说,“对于一些人来说,成败即系于此。”凯斯以公司董事的身份为Bigcommerce提供美国创业趋势方面的建议。“就在五年前,如果要打造一家有吸引力的网店,你需要花费几十万美元。如今,几个小时就可以搞定,每月成本还不到100美元。”

assured
双语介绍《喜羊羊与灰太狼》
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Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

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This habit can seriously hurt you in a work setting. If you’re one of those folks who believes that you do your best work at the last minute and put off projects or assignments until the day (or hour) before they’re due, you may not be aware of the impact your habit is having on your co-workers.If your last-minute rush requires others to work quickly, you will likely anger them, and you’ll be the first one blamed when a project fails or isn’t completed on time.
第二步 重复标志性动作
The second event of note is Comac’s latest round of financing—it raised 15 billion yuan ($2.3 billion) last month in the form of a 10-year debt investment plan—combined with the memorandum of understanding (MOU) signed in June by Airbus and the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC). The financing and MOU are intended to help bring about a fully developed, competitive domestic supply chain, the former through the injection of research and development money down the supply chain and the latter through the integration of Chinese suppliers in Airbus’s global supply network. The objective, as outlined in the “Made in China 2025” plan, is for Chinese suppliers to provide 80% of all parts by 2025.

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

The Shanghai Stock Exchange saw 26 IPOs, while its Shenzhen counterpart saw 15 IPOs of small-and-medium-sized enterprises and 20 start-up companies.
Romney made last-minute visits to Ohio and Pennsylvania on Tuesday to try to drive up turnout in those states, while Vice President Joe Biden was dispatched to Ohio. Obama remained in his hometown of Chicago.
一只五人帅哥音乐剧组合Callabro赢得了大众的青睐,赢得了最高选票,成功卫冕。与此同时,他们还获得了250,000英镑的现金奖励,还获得一次在皇家面前表演的机会。

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • However, before starting their EMBAs, there is already a wide gap in salaries, with women earning on average 15 per cent less than men, at $111,000 and $128,000 respectively.
  • 北京二手房价开始回升 业内对市场反弹信心十足
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  • 红星美凯龙 “去地产化”迎合市场 已经是非上市不可
  • 智能制造背景下 中国家电强大起来了吗?
  • Edward Luce
    A lone European telephone bidder paid a top price of 9.1 million for a smaller 1825 version of John Constable’s admired but difficult-to-love 1824 vertical landscape, “The Lock,” that had been in the same British family since 1855.

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 家居卖场经营惨淡 广州家居流通业出奇招探新路, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

民间投资广东样本 房地产投资已经“退烧”?

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

人民日报:一查到底,方可纾解疫苗焦虑

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

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    Its brand value has increased by 22 per cent to $19bn and it has climbed 20 places up the ranking to number 50.
    8 April
    The cemetery was found in the city of Kucha, which is located in present-day northwest China. Ten tombs were excavated, seven of which turned out to be large brick structures.

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 儿童家具电器等将被纳入召回范围 实施目录管理
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 唐山德生防水股份有限公司董事长李德生:标准化是今后发展趋势

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

但崩盘还是来了。经济下滑,衰退持续了30个月,华尔街把我们的退休金拿去亏了超过八万亿美元。从2000年网络股崩盘到2010年的灾难,在21世纪的头10年里,华尔街经通胀因素调整后的绩效为负。今天华尔街的回报率也只是刚刚战胜通货膨胀。难怪投资者觉得被华尔街的赌场骗了。
Season\'s greetings and sincere wishes for a bright and happy New Year!
A teenage student in Southwest China's Chongqing Municipality has been sentenced to one year in jail after trying to poison fellow students for being too noisy in class, local media reported last Wednesday.
出口复苏可能在一定程度上化解人们对于新兴市场国家的悲观看法。在本世纪初的那些年,许多新兴市场国家曾把出口强劲增长作为经济快速发展的跳板,后来出口由盛转衰了。
The names of some of these public Facebook groups, Mic reported, were "Harvard Memes for Elitist 1% Tweens", "UCLA Memes for Sick AF Tweens" and "USC Memes for Spoiled Pre-Teens".
China will remain an important engine for world growth amid sluggish global economic recovery.
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These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 在针对已拥有金融业工作经验的学员开设的金融课程的排行榜上,伦敦商学院(London Business School)重新夺回在2011年至2015年占据的冠军宝座,同时英国剑桥大学(University of Cambridge)佳奇管理学院(Judge Business School)跌回第二名。
  • 修订后的《中华人民共和国个人所得税法实施条例》公布
  • Not all the judges agreed with the book’s proposed solutions but nobody questioned the force of its argument.
    The biggest story of the festival had nothing to do with films. It was about shoes. On Tuesday trade magazine Screen reported that a group of women had been denied access to a screening of Todd Haynes' Carol because their footwear – flat shoes with rhinestones – was unsuitable for the red carpet. Further tales came tumbling forth, social media erupted in indignation and soon enough we were soon dealing with a fully fledgedscandale. The Cannes press office rushed out a garbled statement: “Rules have not changed throughout the years (Tuxedo, formal dress for Gala screenings) and there is no specific mention about the height of the women's heels as well as for men's. Thus, in order to make sure that this rule is respected, the festival's hosts and hostesses were reminded of it.” Well, that cleared that up. Perhaps wisely, press screenings are exempt from any dress code: scruffy journalists are free to ascend the Palais' steps in flip flops and trainers.
  • 地板企业成本“瘦身”需从“虎口”中抢夺利润
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

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    汉森表示,美国原油增产意味着现货油价对地缘政治事件的反应不如以往那样大了。他说,目前的原油供应足够多,油价受威胁的程度不如以往,2014年将是首个出现一段时间原油供应增量超过需求增量的年头。
  • 受此影响,对设备等关键领域的商业投资一直处在美国复苏历史中的低点。若就业市场缓慢改善,且家庭财富增长,则可能引发消费支出增加的良性循环,增强商业信心并增加投资。但若情况并非如此,那么今年将再度令人失望。
    STEP 10: Even if you don't really fit the criteria, tell everyone you are a SOCIOPATH
  • Man-made climate change is the main culprit for warming that was leading the world into “uncharted territory”, said Peter Stott, head of climate monitoring and attribution at the UK Met Office’s Hadley Centre for climate research, which released separate findings confirming the US analysis.
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    The residents of the Hankou Binjiang estate had been moved out weeks before.
    Thus assuming that type D personalities lack social interest is not correct but the right thing is that they might be interested in people but afraid to approach them because they fear rejection.
  • Next year, crude from Libya--which experienced major problems exporting its oil in 2013 because of internal disputes--could flow again. Iraqi output also is set to increase. Even Iran, shut out of global markets for years, could return if an agreement is reached to relax sanctions aimed at curbing its nuclear development. All this could add as much as two million to three million barrels a day of Middle East output.
    报告还发现,在当地政府的努力下,北京、深圳、广州、上海等一线城市的交通拥堵状况没有恶化。
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 台LED产品出口欧盟或免关税 亿光/晶电/东贝/亿光等将受惠 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

解析第34届名家具展透露出的七大家居发展趋势

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

发债高峰再现 11月房企融资已超千亿

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

绿色建材发展即将驶入“快车道”

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

河南楼市最近有点儿“冷”大学生被拉去当“房托儿”

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • 国家整体的幸福感
  • 埃米?珀勒(Amy Poehler)狂吻博诺(Bono),蒂娜?费(Tina Fey)吐槽乔治?克鲁尼(George Clooney)只爱年轻女人,而诡异的是马特?戴蒙(Matt Damon)当晚数次“中枪”。
  • 铝合金门窗将迈向时尚化智能化

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 在经过了漫长的海选和五天紧张的半决赛之后,11位候选选手中其中一位成为了第八季英国达人秀2014年的冠军。
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 7. Kristen Stewart
    The discovery has caused huge excitement among historians, as it provides firm evidence about a monarch whose life has been shrouded in controversy since his death at the Battle of Bosworth in 1485.
    spoon
  • 54集电视连续剧《花千骨》绝对是刷爆朋友圈热门话题。2015年夏天播出以来,《花千骨》就名噪一时。这部由霍建华和赵丽颖主演的电视剧改编自Fresh果果的同名网络小说。这部改编电视剧颇具美感,中国水墨画风格的外景,加上盛世美颜的男女猪脚,成功吸引了80多万微博粉丝(《花千骨》电视剧官方微博)。该剧2015年6月首播,以女性的视角讲诉了一个孤儿成为女神的心路历程,以及她经历的旷世虐恋。

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • We learned that we could see a source of ripples in space-time.
  • 深圳7月起禁用油漆能否引发全国各地响应?
  • UK schools account for more than a third of all graduates from the top 50 pre-experience programmes and not only attracted nearly half of all female students but also almost half of all international students. Indeed, 94 per cent of students enrolled in a UK MiF pre-experience programme in 2014 were from overseas. About 85 per cent of these students were from outside the European Economic Area, including 55 per cent of the overall number from mainland China.

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • “十一”黄金周卖场大打促销战 家具卖场波澜不惊
  • Household substance abuse
  • 房市逐渐走好 涂料行业迎来市场曙光
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

机关事业单位和城乡居民社会保险费交由税务机关征收

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 货币政策的定向宽松并不会给房价带来刺激
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 地板企业要壮大 品牌建设是关键
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

This year's new college grads entering the workforce are being offered an average monthly salary of 4,014 yuan ($582), and about one-third of them chose to work in first-tier cities, according to survey results released by zhaopin.com, a Chinese online recruitment service provider.

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

Length of program: 19 months
Mr Crabb has taken no exposure to Hong Kong’s property market since setting up in Asia 18 months ago, because he says prices are too high and affordability too low.
Now analysts believe the opportunities for profitable growth are nearly exhausted, according to Chen Long of Gavekal Dragonomics, a research group.
新年来临,祝新年快乐,愿你时时刻刻幸福欢乐!
Some 150,000 rural residents in southwest China's Tibet Autonomous Region escaped poverty last year, according to the Tibet Poverty Alleviation Office.
Erle Spratt, who manages M&G’s Asia property fund, an open-ended investment vehicle, says it is risky to invest directly because assets are not easy to find and price. “It is a very difficult market to buy assets in for investors like us, because developers have very substantial holdings and they tend not to sell,” he says.
It might be that bit too far from the mainstream to make a huge awards impact.
最佳录影带:Little Big Town《Tornado》
7. “Out 1: Noli Me Tangere”(Jacques Rivette)
尽管外贸额占经济总量的比重逐渐增大,但是相比那些每天都大量采购各种日用品,食品而且随意采纳金融方面建议的欧洲和亚洲的主要竞争者,美国经济更容易免受外部不良因素的冲击,实际上相比与外国的竞争者具有更好的抵御危机的能力。

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

南京:人才安居房可“先租后售”

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • brace原指双臂,用双臂支撑-使稳固用两个brace embrace(v 拥抱)
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 影片发生在一个夏天,故事里6岁的早熟女孩穆尼整天和一群衣衫褴褛的朋友们捣乱打闹。生活在迪士尼乐园的幻影里,她和反叛却充满爱心的妈妈感情越发深厚。
  • “金九”将至 为换房降价卖房增多
  • 人的身体是十分脆弱的,有些娇弱的器官一旦破坏就永远难以复原。幸运的是,世界各地的研究人员都在研究能替代我们身体部位的生化机械器官。
  • 盘点10大恶炒的家居“概念”
  • The prize sold for far more than the gallery's estimate of $50,000 to $100,000. The only other Nobel Peace Prize known to have sold at auction was a 1903 medal that brought nearly $17,000 in 1985.

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 网购家居建材满意度仅有8% 卖得越多退得越多
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • As institutions are brought under dictatorial control, the opposition is driven into rebellion or acquiescence.
  • Ultimately, democracy, or a democratic republic, provides a way for people with different views and even cultures to live side by side in reasonable harmony.

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

1-9月房地产投资近7.5万亿 预计10月将明显降温

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